Mustard crop has a special contribution in the Indian economy. Mustard crop is very beneficial for farmers. It gives more income for less cost.
35-40 percent oil is obtained from mustard and oil cake is also obtained from mustard in the form of residue which increases the milk production of milch animals. Oil cake is also used as organic manure.
Mustard production can be increased by adopting advanced technology and latest varieties of mustard production.
Mustard Production Technology
Preparation of the field –
One plowing of the field should be done with a soil-reversing plow and 2-3 ploughings should be done with a desi plow (cultivator) and make it friable.
Seed treatment –
For protection from seed borne diseases, sowing should be done by treating with 2.5 gm Thiram or Trichoderma viridi per kg seed. Insect and downy mildew disease is prevented in the early stages by treating Metalaxyl 1.5 g per kg seed.
Sowing time, seed rate and method –
The suitable time for sowing of mustard is second fortnight of October. At that time the temperature is about 20-25 ° C, due to which the setting of the crop is good.
Use seed quantity of 5 kg per hectare in irrigated and unirrigated areas.
Sowing should be done by sowing machine at a distance of 40×15 cm in the furrows (4.5 cm deep).
Fertilizer requirement –
Fertilizers should be used on the basis of the test report of the soil of the field.
Nitrogen 90 kg, Phosphorus 60 kg and Potash 40 kg per hectare should be used. Phosphorus is more beneficial to use in the form of single super phosphate.
It also has the availability of sulphur. If single super phosphate is not used in the crop, then 40 kg per hectare of sulphur should be used.
In irrigated areas, it is beneficial to give half the amount of nitrogen and the full amount of phosphorus along with the seeds in the rill at the time of sowing. Remaining amount of nitrogen should be applied at first irrigation (25-30 days after sowing).
Irrigation management –
Mustard requires only two irrigations. First irrigation should be done, 25-30 days after sowing (before flowering) and if there is no rain, second should be done after 65-70 days (at the stage of pod formation).