Earthworms play the most important role in making vermicompost.
It is made by earthworms by decomposing vegetation and food waste etc. The biological activity of earthworms increases the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash in the soil.
Vermicompost contains innumerable beneficial microorganisms that increase the fertility of the soil by activating the bacteria found in the soil.
Vermicompost increases air circulation in the soil and also water holding capacity in the soil.
Earthworm manure should be added to the soil @ 2.5-3 tonnes per hectare while planting crops.
Process of making Vermicompost
Selection of Earthworm - First select the species of earthworms in which fertility is strong, ability to tolerate natural temperature fluctuations such as Eicinia fitida, Eudilus, Eugenie and Parionics excavates.
For this process, all types of bio-harmful organic such as cow, buffalo, sheep, poultry stools and urban waste, manufactured food, waste material, grass, flowers and leaves, kitchen waste, temple flower garlands, etc. are used. If there are any pieces of glass, stones, metal, etc., separate them.
First prepare a shade of 6-8 feet height.
The beds of earthworms make the same bed as the surface of the ground, 10 feet long, 3 feet wide and 1-1.5 feet high.
The length of the bed can be kept as per your convenience.
Then, after wetting the bed surface, keep 2-3 inches of weeds and leaves.
Thereafter, put the rotten organic material in the bed & 10-15 days old cow dung to a height of 1-1.5 feet in the bed.
After filling the bed with organic material and cow dung, spray water once a day for 5-6 days.
After this, keep the cow dung resuffling at an interval of 2 days, so that the gas released from the cow dung will come out and the temperature of cow dung will be reduced.
After a few days when the dung temperature decreases, earthworms can be released into it.
After leaving the earthworms, the beds should be covered with banana leaves or jute sacks as earthworms are more active in the dark.
To keep the moisture of the bed (30-35 percent), water should be sprayed once in winter and twice in summer daily.
Within 45-50 days, earthworms convert the dung and organic residues into vermicompost.